While effective services and treatments for depression have been identified, the stigma associated with depression has been identified as a barrier to seeking treatment [ 29 ].
For analysis and reporting, two methodological criteria were defined with respect to the reported statistics and confounding variables: The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the General Health Questionnaire, and the Langner scale were the most popular instruments among the symptom inventories.
People in the lowest class are far more likely to suffer from psychiatric distress than those in the highest class [ 26 ]. The studies were screened for two features: Although the third DSM-IV axis is devoted to somatic diseases, very few of the studies reviewed provided results controlling for physical health.
This study found that approximately one-fifth of immigrant Chinese Australian people with diabetes had symptoms consistent with moderate to severe depression and that individuals who are socially isolated and have more complex treatment and complications of diabetes are particularly at risk.
The presence of diabetic complications, low monthly family income, diabetic nephropathy, negative life event, and poor social support were the statistically significant risk factors associated with depression.
Interviewers were restricted from conducting interviews in any other language because of the complexity of the question concepts.
When information on education was not available, income was considered next and then occupation. The dose-response coefficients are shown in table 4.
Five studies had nonsignificant odds ratios below 1.
Therefore, we do not know whether these findings can be generalized to a non-western setting. Since the early s, important psychiatric epidemiologic surveys have been carried out on a wider geographic basis.
The quality of sleep variable was not included in the multivariate regression analysis because it is considered to be a symptom of depression instead of being a predictor of depression.
However, a review by Kohn et al. For each additional year of education, the log odds ratio of being depressed decreased by 3 percent. The sample was usually divided into three SES groups. The CIDI was designed to capture cross cultural incidence of mental illness.
Only one unpublished study was obtained There are several reports supporting a bidirectional association between depression and type 2 diabetes. Patients with established type 2 diabetes mellitus were evaluated for depression by administering a validated nine-item questionnaire PHQ-9 Amharic version-local language [ 29 ].
Only the odds ratio comparing the lowest and highest socioeconomic categories was retained Also, respondents who experienced the following criteria associated with MDE were classified as having month depression, 1 meet the criteria for lifetime diagnosis of MDE, 2 report a month episode, and 3 report marked impairment in occupational or social functioning.
Type 2 diabetes patients were evaluated for depression by administering a validated nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire PHQ Finally, longitudinal studies have allowed us to undertake a more dynamic study of the relation between SES and depression in terms of incidence 12remission 13response to treatment 1415and long-term outcome 16In Canada, single mothers have been found to have prevalence of It was not always possible to specify a dose-response relation because of the variety of socioeconomic indicators used education, income, occupation, social class, assets and because some socioeconomic variables were categorical e.
The sampling weights were used to estimate the prevalence of depression in each subgroup of the population. We checked the robustness of the results in four ways: Based on the literature we classify these potential risk factors as sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors.
Low socioeconomic status SES is generally associated with high psychiatric morbidity, disability, and poor access to health care. The sociodemographic characteristics of each group are shown in Table 1and their diabetes status is described in Table 2.
Epidemiological studies of depression in Canada and United States found differences in the prevalence rates of depression based on SES factors [ 10 - 1327 ].
The characteristics of the studies included are presented in table 2. Also, the bootstrap program was used in a multiple logistic regression technique to estimate the odds ratio of depression for each demographic and socio-economic factor. It is important for local planners to have a more detailed analysis of the picture of depression in Ontario.
In 17 studies, the statistical processing controlled for both age and sex.
Abstract Background Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in Western countries and is related to increased morbidity and mortality from medical conditions and decreased quality of life. The sampling weights were used in conducting chi-square tests and chi-square test for trend.
Table 1 Binary logistic regression examining the association between sociodemographic factors and depressive symptoms, June Variables.
Third, they used symptom-screening instruments that were insufficiently specific, because they mixed a wide range of psycho-physiologic problems as well as true psychiatric disorders 7. First, several of the studies only included patients in the sample, making results vulnerable to variations in the help-seeking and referral process.
Depression in diabetes has been associated with poor self-management behaviors and poor medication adherence, 14,15 both of which in turn aggravate glycemic control and increase the prevalence of complications in diabetes.
16,17 To break the vicious circle of this complex bidirectional relationship between diabetes complications and depression. Effect sizes (ES) for standardised differences in means were used to describe the magnitude of difference between demographic sub-groups.
Mean age of respondents was (range 19–99) years. Females comprised 63 % of the sample, 48 % had not completed secondary education, and 96 % reported at least one existing health condition. The negative relation between age and depression after adjusting for some sociodemographic factors is consistent with some previous findings and contrasts with some older findings that the relation between age and depression is U-shaped.
Purpose. Depression and anxiety have high prevalence in patients on hemodialysis and are strongly associated with socio-economic factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of depression and anxiety in hemodialyzed patients in Greece and its.
Funnel plot of 51 prevalence studies of the relation between socioeconomic factors and depression that were published after The prevalence and socio-demographic correlations of depression, anxiety and stress among a group of university students prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among a group of Turkish university students.
Methods Depres- differences in DASS scores between different student groups. Results The total number of participants was.An analysis of depression and diferences in prevalence between sociodemographic groups